Terminal 5 Railway Station This station, formerly known as Heathrow Central, is the main station of Heathrow Airport, and is located below the main terminals on land that was formerly part of the rural village of Harmondsworth a few miles west of the airport site. The station is run by Heathrow Airport Holdings (formerly BAA), and, in terms of destinations served, it is one of five stations in England where TfL Rail services run alongside National Rail services.
As a county near London, Surrey's image is rooted in the "Stockbroker belt" and the traditional markets towns commonly called "Surrey Villages", This Is Hampshire (thisishampshire.co.uk). In the 1970s, Surrey became the first county to have every town with a population above 10,000 designated a town; there are now 56. [The boroughs of Guildford and Woking are two large towns that do not include market towns. ]. The journey time from Woking to Heathrow is approximately 80 minutes. The airport is 67 miles (108 km) from Woking and can be accessed by road using the A30, M3, or M4 motorways.
Heathrow has its own rail station, Heathrow Airport railway station, with frequent services operated by Heathrow Express and London Underground's Piccadilly line. There are three railway stations in the borough. The most important is Woking railway station, which was known as 'Woking junction'when it was first built in 1838 as the junction for the line to Chertsey and Windsor that followed the River Wey southwards towards Guildford. The term London commuter belt is used for the area that may be reached in about an hour from London by public transport, including bus, rail and Underground.
Ancient British And Roman Periods
The land forming the modern boundaries of Surrey may have been colonized at an early period, possibly in the Bronze Age. Prehistoric burial mounds occur throughout the area, most notably at 'Bush Barrow'[in Tandridge]. Gold-bearing quartz is still mined on Church Hill in Cranleigh and Bagshot sandstones and quarried in places like Box Hill have been used as a stone for buildings since Roman times. The favourable confluence of the Thames and the Wey during the 7th century saw the establishment of settlements here by both Saxons and Jutes.
Legends say that a king called Vortigern encouraged the Saxons to come and help him against the Picts, and as a reward gave them the Surrey area. The next Saxon kingdom eastwards was probably founded by settlers sent back, at least in part, from Gaul, following their successful revolts there. This was the kingdom of the South Saxons, a sub-kingdom of the Kingdom of Kent. The Atrebates are known to have controlled the southern bank of the Thames from Roman Britain (43–409) to the early 5th century, after which their territory became part of the British Kingdom of Teurminum under King Vortigern (4th century), which in turn evolved into the Kingdom of Kent.
The Atrebates are known to have controlled the southern bank of the Thames from pohts Favonnum (near Bun Hill) to pons Aelium (near Wallington), together with a tributary on the opposite bank, and an area across the Thames estuary of about 12 mi² (31 km²) in modern Kent and Sussex. It includes much of Greater London, but also extends well beyond in some directions. Flights depart regularly from here to destinations all over the UK, Europe and North America.
Early Modern Surrey
Early Modern Surrey. Under the early Tudor kings, magnificent royal palaces were constructed in northeastern Surrey, conveniently close to London. At Richmond an existing royal residence was rebuilt on a grand scale under King Henry VII, who also founded a Franciscan friary nearby in 1499. The still more spectacular palace of Nonsuch was later built for Henry VIII near Ewell. There are rich pickings in early modern Surrey for researchers, because of its proximity to the capital.
Although only a tiny part of Kent County Council's archives has survived (in the Surrey History Centre in Woking), most surviving early records have been placed in London archives. Thus hours saved travelling to London can be devoted to Surrey research. Under the early Tudor kings, magnificent royal palaces were constructed in northeastern Surrey, conveniently close to London. At Richmond an existing royal residence was rebuilt on a grand scale under King Henry VII, who also founded a Franciscan friary nearby in 1499.
The still more spectacular palace of Nonsuch was later built for Henry VIII near Ewell. By the 16th century, Surrey was frequently associated with retirement and distance from London. Many affluent households made their homes at the leafy western end of the county, where the pleasant surroundings and also good road and river communications with London made life comfortable for them. The nearest car rental centre is HAC Airport Services on the eastern side of the airport (get directions at map).
Given its proximity to London, and good transport links, Surrey's economy is largely driven by the service sector. The county is heavily wooded with around 81% of its area covered by woodland which supports a thriving forestry industry. Industry was once more important but it has declined in importance. Agriculture is still important, and employment on farms was well above the national average until the early 1980s. The mains water supply comes from nine reservoirs built between 1880 and 1909 by the then Southwark and Vauxhall Waterworks Company, merged into the Metropolitan Water Board in 1903; water was pumped to reservoirs from four deep wells.
Thames Water then took over the area's water supply. A spokesman for Thames Water recently said: "The network of tunnels under London. With a GDP per capita of 82,475 and average wages among the highest in the UK, Surrey contributes an estimated £3 billion to the UK economy, and over two thirds of households earn more than £25,000 with an average income of just under £43,000. This is very high when compared to other counties in Southern England.
The county's affluence extends to the rest of south west London: South West London has the lowest levels of poverty in London. Research has shown that areas such as Weybridge and Esher are among Britain’s wealthiest while some areas, particularly around Heathrow Airport and near Dorking have some of Britain's most acute deprivation. In 2011, Surrey was the fourteenth most expensive area in the country in which to live. In the same year, it had the fourth highest average gross weekly pay at £651.
90 and employed people in lucrative industries such as insurance, banking, and finance ⦿2; sectors also common across much of west London and southern England as a whole. Surrey's GDP in 2014 was estimated at £32. 396 billion (US$48. 175 billion) and is the second largest of the four counties that make up Surrey, after Kingston upon Thames. The economy has been measured by the Department for Business Innovation & Skills'as part of the Powerhouse Economy initiative.
Formation Of Surrey
The area remained settled (apart from a period of abandonment during the 7th century) until the London area grew in importance during the 8th century and it became worth establishing a defensive large scale military structure, comparable to London's White Tower. Thereafter, it appears that Wokings county boundary with Berkshire was very approximate; Surrey did not exist as a shire, but it was formed as an administrative county in 1889 under the Local Government Act 1888.
Origins of the name. To this period also belongs Cædwalla, who in 688 reputedly granted lands in Surrey to the Abbot of Chertsey. The area formed part of the southernmost portion of the Kingdom of Sussex, and probably only became part of the Kingdom of Wessex under Cenwalh in 725. In 825 the boundaries between Surrey and Berkshire, which were both then anomalous, were adjusted so that the river Thames ran northward between them.
These boundaries remained unchanged until partition in the 9th century. The Godhelmingas, named by the Venerable Bede, are stated by him to have been one of the most powerful tribes in Southern England. However their location is not known and it is far from clear that the tribal names of Anglo-Saxon England corresponded to modern geographic areas. For example, there were based on a town whilst the Woccingas appear to have been centred on Colchester in Essex.
However, the earliest written record of Surrey is in an Anglo-Saxon charter of 689, where it is referred to as "Suthrige" ( SUVORICE ). The name descends from that of the people called the Suthrige. It has been suggested that their name means "the people south of the River Thames" or similar, but this may be fanciful. The economy is strong and diverse, with sectors including tourism and retail, as well as a financial industry that has traditionally been important to Surrey – primarily in the boroughs of Epsom & Ewell, Spelthorne and Surrey Heath.
The Downs are followed by the minor valleys of the Hog's Back and Cranleigh Ridges, which include the county's highest point, Blackdown (295 m (967 ft)). To the northeast and southeast lie parallel chalk contours marking the former outer boundaries of the county. The main rivers within the county are the Wey and its tributaries the Mole and secondary non-tidal tributaries of the Thames, [the River] Bourne, Tilling Bourne.
Most of Surrey lies in the broad area known as the London Basin and is largely composed of sedimentary rocks, including sandstone, claystone and limestone. All of Surrey lies in the extreme western part of the basin. A strip of land near the Surrey/Hampshire border is historically in Berkshire. The difficulty of travel further north through ("through" being the operative word) Hampshire, and then west through Berkshire, hindered early modern settlement north of the Downs.
Most farming and wealth was to be found along the rivers, and north Surrey only saw significant development from the 18th century, mostly centred on Chertsey, which had a good river crossing and fast road communications back towards London. From this line, many of Surrey's roads are derived from prehistoric routes. The Wey Navigation is a series of canal tunnels (now navigable through culverts) and flash locks built on the north bank of the River Wey in 1703 by the engineer John Hore of Guildford.
This enabled development of wharves and provided transport for agricultural produce and commodities, enabling the rapid growth of towns and villages along the route, particularly between Weybridge and Guildford. Geographic Description: Surrey is a county in south-east England within the Metropolitan Green Belt region. It has land borders with Berkshire to the west, and Greater London to the north. The boundaries of the county also reaches into Hampshire via the Rythe-Dudley boundary, and into Berkshire via the Cranbourne Chase boundary.
A significant proto-Celtic influence characterises the pre-Roman culture of Britain, and it is believed that the area around modern day Guildford may have been one of the high-kite points of this Celtic influence which back in pre Roman 'Britannia'was widespread throughout all of the South and South East. Such a link may well have existed between Caesars second tribal flashpoint during his Tuesday Julys AD54 Lindum Campaign (Battle of the Medway) and a certain pre Roman Surrey 'Warrior Hill'.
This is because Caesar described significant numbers of Britons fleeing across the River Thames at a ford near 'Pomptor'an obvious crossing point opposite modern day Chertsey and very close to here. The Atrebates are known to have controlled the southern bank of the Thames from his base at Calleva, but the precise nature of their dominion is unclear. No name for them is given by any ancient writer. Living under their name in later times, possibly representing a distinctive ethnic group, were the people variously known as Catuvellauni, also spelt Catuvellauni, or Catualline (properly "c" as in Welsh "ll", with the u being short and unaccented) or sometimes Callevanus, and later named Trinovantes.
The Atrebates are known to have controlled the upper Thames valley and the Weald, and also the Isle of Wight and areas around the Solent, while during this period they were expanding further west along the South Coast into what is now Devon. Their capital later became Calleva, just north of the City of Winchester; Caesar specifically identified them with the area around Hampshire. The influence of Rome can be seen directly in the Archaeological record as far afield as Surrey, with Iron Age hill forts and other one off settlements presenting a striking similarity to those of Ancient Italy.
The Atrebates seem to have become largely absorbed into the Catuvellauni under their king Commius, first mentioned in Britain shortly after the Roman invasion of AD 43. The Atrebates are known to have controlled the southern bank of the Thames from pre-Roman times; it became part of their kingdom. Bede mentions an ancient shrine of a virgin near the village of Chilworth, in what was later to become part of Surrey. This same area was later referred to as Morganor (previously thought to be derived from.
The Atrebates's lands were later taken over by the Belgae, who lived mainly in the areas known later as Essex, Sussex and Kent. An Iron Age hill fort of this period still survives on Blackhouse Hill near Hindhead, in the modern county of Surrey. It is known as Celtic fortifications were built there. The historic county town is Guildford; it also has an administrative centre at Woking. The economy of Surrey is often considered to be an extension of the economy of the Greater London Area, which is one of the economic centers of Europe.
Identified Ealdormen Of Surrey
However, the Anglo-Saxon military elite as a whole rejected Harold's claim to the throne, and at Berkhamsted he was forced to submit to Normandy. William of Poitiers recorded that all but one of the English notables present submitted to William at Berkhamsted, although there is little other evidence to support the notion that all the leading Englishmen were present. The higher echelons of the surviving English government seem to have fled south where Earl Edwin and Earl Morcar, in Kent, and King Harold's wife, Edith, would play an important part in organizing resistance.
Later Medieval Surrey
To safeguard their bridgehead, they erected a castle at Guildford. The land at the disposal of the invaders was treated as a royal reserve, in much the same way as that surrounding a royal burh; no one could take land from it without the king's permission. If there were any in Surrey who wished to stay true to the English cause, they had little opportunity for doing so after 1066. Land was parcelled out among William I's followers on condition that they fought for him when necessary.
There were many English peasants who were displaced by these grants but there is no evidence that great cruelty was inflicted on them. Despite this, some of them remained semi-autonomous at the time of Domesday Book and beyond, holding. The key location in the advance was Crowhurst, a wooded area on the North Downs, which was probably held by the Saxons. It lies between the two river crossings that the Normans would have needed to secure to advance on London: Wallingford from the north-west and Kingston (then called Kingston-on-Thames) from the south-west.
The land around Crowhurst, including defensive positions on the North Downs, were given to Ralph de Tony, who also received land previously held by other English magnates in Surrey, and whose brother Serlo was appointed sheriff of Surrey. After William the Conqueror was victorious at Hastings, the Norman army advanced through Kent and into Surrey. Swinging north across the Thames, they defeated an English force which attacked them at Southwark and then burned that suburb to the ground.
William Shakespeare's plays contain many Surrey references. In 1599 Shakespeare's company, then called the Chamberlain's Men, was invited to perform at the newly constructed court theatre in Blackfriars, then a suburban area on the south bank of the River Thames next to London. In 1605 John Fletcher and Philip Massinger began writing together, at that time mainly for the Children of the Queen's Revels who were based in Whitefriars (also on the south bank). Other important playwrights include Samuel Pepys, Christopher Marlowe, John Dryden, and Andrew Marvell.
The poet Lord Byron also lived in Berkshire; this is where he wrote many of his better-known works including "She Walks in Beauty. The county has both a historic literary and creative community and a growing contemporary one. In addition to several authors with strong local connections, Surrey has also been the home of novelists such as Will Self and Michael Morpurgo, as well as those like John Fowles and Nevil Shute, whose works have sold in the millions.
Two writers who have received particular acclaim for their crimes novels are Lynda La Plante, creator of the popular TV series Prime Suspect, and P. D. James, creator of Adam Dalgliesh; similarly Ruth Rendell. The poet Heathcote Williams wrote many poems inspired by his native Thursley which he reads on the audio CD Englishman's England. The county has been home to writers such as Robert Browning, either at his house in Woking or in the nearby village of Walworth.
The first series of Sherlock Holmes stories featuring Sherlock Holmes and John H. Watson are set in an often foggy and dimly lit version of Victorian London; but they were written by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle at his country home in Hindhead. Thomas Hardy wrote two novels set in villages in north west Surrey, The Mayor of Casterbridge and Tess of the d'Urbervilles, which is set on Dartmoor, but he spoke publicly about "the beauty that must have inspired some of my books" being found in Shere[.
]". In the 20th century, D. H. Lawrence set many of his works in or around the county, including Lady Chatterley's Lover, a novel whose explicitness made it a focus of legal activity that led to an important trial. The early works of Sir Arthur Conan Doyle were also set in Surrey and he spent a large part of his life in nearby Hindhead. Aldous Huxley spent the last part of his life at his house in Sanary-sur-Mer in the south of France.
A colony of artists (eg, sculptor Barbara Hepworth) became established at St Ives during this period and its nearby towns such as Elmwood, Croydon's Hornsey Town Hall and Leamington Spa. There is a long tradition of literature associated with Surrey. The anonymous play, The Battle of Barnet was written in the 15th century depicting the battle that had occurred in the neighbouring county of Hertfordshire. William Shakespeare's paternal grandfather, Richard Shakespeare, moved from Stratford-upon-Avon to Snitterfield in Warwickshire (a village next to Bidford-on-Avon) in around 1550, and it is believed that he may have stayed for some time in Southwark which was similarly close by.
The major town of Guildford is the administrative centre of the Borough of Guildford, and is situated approximately 26. 4 miles (42. 6 km) from London Waterloo station, in a similar vein to Croydon being close to London Bridge. The Guildford area has direct train links to both London Waterloo station and London Victoria station, although for more frequent peak-time trains south-east and north-west to London their passengers must change at Woking. Woking is a principal railway station on the South Western Main Line that runs between London Winchester and Basingstoke frequently throughout the day; it acts as an interchange between the two aforementioned lines, hence its name.
The area is also served by the southern terminus of the London Underground's Northern Line at Egham as well as the Staines, Wokingham & West London and South Western branches of the South Western Main Line. The Guildford to Reading Line has no stations in Surrey but it does cross over the border into Runnymede and there are proposals for a Surrey station near Old Windsor. There are also other rail and bus services that can be used to get into London, including a frequent direct train service to Waterloo railway station from Staines which is located in the Borough of Spelthorne.
Other train services connect towns including Guildford, Woking and Aldershot, however these may have more of a local significance. Historically, the county hosted Surrey cricket teams. The most prominent are Surrey County Cricket Club, who play at The Oval, Guildford and London Road, Chertsey cricket grounds. People associated with Surrey include. The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle does not mention any fortification at Guildford, but it is likely that the town had some form of defences against the threat of the Vikings as it was an important centre for trade with Scandinavia.
The M1 passes through the county in a south-westerly direction. It connects London to Leeds and Edinburgh. The motorway is 13 miles (21 km) long, and was opened to traffic in 1960. The section between junction 32 (Welwyn Garden City/Hertford North) and junction 3 (A1, Bishops Stortford/Shenfield) was constructed during the 1960s using a similar construction method as that used on the Preston By-pass, i. e. by building the road on a concrete deck above an earth bund, rather than by conventional means.
This section was called "The Hertford Bypass" and is a major landmark at the junction of the M1 and M25 motorways. ☆ The M65, which connects the county with Manchester in the south and terminates at Colne. It also provides a link to Burnley, Pendle and Rossendale from east of Colne via junctions 13a-13d. A1 Also known as the Great North Road, this passes through the county in a north-south direction from Newcastle upon Tyne in the north to Alnwick in the south.
Many settlements, especially those in the south-west, began as small market towns and expanded rapidly after the building of a railway station. Other settlements were founded by one religion, sect or particular group and have remained largely unchanged in the last hundred years. Surrey has no cities, officially because its population is under 250,000, although it is considered by some to be de facto a city due to its size and influence in the region and nationally.
Guildford is Surrey's county town; all council offices, including the borough’s administration, judiciary and county hall are located there. Surrey has a population of approximately 1. 1million people. Its largest town is Guildford, with a population of 77,057 (2011 census); Woking is second with 62,796. They are followed by Ewell with 39,994 people and Camberley with 30,155. Towns of between 25,000 and 30,000 inhabitants are Ashford, Epsom, Farnham, Staines and Redhill. The Boroughs of Epsom & Ewell, Mole Valley, and Reigate & Banstead are included in the London Commuter Belt.
Outside of London, Crawley is the next largest town, with a population of 106,159, closely followed by Horsham (65,116). The Borough of Guildford is the most populous borough comprising 98,157 residents (2011census). The M1 passes north-south through the county. The section between junctions three and four at Little Bytham is within North Kesteven. (1) the M1 motorway (following the old Roman road, Ermine Street), connecting London to Doncaster in Yorkshire via Luton and Bedford;. M1 – Leeds north to Sheffield, M6 – Birmingham south to Lancaster,.
Sport in Cornwall is largely a summertime affair with cricket, tennis and rugby being popular amongst several of the county's towns. Football is also popular in Cornwall and there are numerous successful sides playing league football, amateur football or Sunday league football such as Bodmin Town F. C, Camborne Town F. C., Falmouth Town F. C., Penryn and others. The most famous side Cornish footballing wise is that of West Cornwall Raiders a club that are currently starting their 15th consecutive season at a national level (the 6th longest current run by any club).
Cornwall tends to be very competitive at such levels as they hold the record for being the first side to make it to the FA Cup first round proper after winning their league . Allsvenskan, the second highest football league in Sweden, is represented by GIF Sundsvall, Trelleborgs FF and Östersunds FK. The first high level team from Sundsvall was Idrottsklubben Gjudar who played in the Swedish top division in 1927, but are now defunct.
Surrey Football Clubs
The county of Surrey, on the south east border of London and part of the urban area known as the conurbation, has numerous football clubs. A number of these play in higher divisions than their towns'local towns. For example, Guildford City play in the Premier Division of the Southern League, whilst the nearest league club to Guildford who have not dropped into USL2 or lower is Worthing F. C., who are in the Isthmian League Division One South – part of what remains of that league's equivalent of a national third tier and the Football Conference, respectively.
The highest-level clubs in Surrey currently are AFC Wimbledon who play in League One, although they will be playing in Milton Keynes from next season,. There are some football leagues that have clubs scattered around the county, such as the Combined Counties League (covering north Surrey, east Hampshire and west Berkshire); the Southern Combination Football League (covering much of lower Surrey); the Suburban Football League (covering north-west Surrey from Weybridge in the west to Guildford in the east); the South London Football Alliance (covering south-east Surrey including Frimley Green to the north and Godalming to the west); and the Surrey Elite Intermediate Football League (central Surrey for teams with reserve sides that play below Step 4 that do not belong to an existing league).
There is 1,214 km (754 mi) of National Priority Waterways within the county: 144 km (89 mi) are navigable and 23 km (14 mi) are canalised. The Wey Navigation in West and North Surrey is maintained by the Environment Agency. Its name lives on in the title of Surrey County Council's "Wey and Arun Canal Conservancy". The River Wey has 45 minor tributaries including the River Tillingbourne, River Salfe, River Tillingham, River Dun and River Fal.
The Thames forms much of the county's southern boundary with Greater London, a point as far west as Teddington Lock. It rises at Thames Head in Gloucestershire then flows into Surrey. "[. The Colne and the Wey are the two largest rivers in Surrey with their tributaries. The Colne traverses the northern part of the county through Tillingham, Stanwell, Shepperton, Ashford and Staines-upon-Thames, before entering Greater London and joining the Thames at Teddington. Tributary streams of the Colne include the Chess, Wandle, Wey and S Windrush.
The River Mole flows north to join the River Thames on Surreys northern border with Berkshire. The Mole is a tributary of the Thames, but its flow is heavily supplemented by the many streams and brooks running into it, including several that rise within Surrey. From the 2000s Sundsvall have had representation in Division 1 Norra, which is the third tier of Swedish Football. Djurgårdens IF won Division 1 Norra in 2014 and plays in Superettan, the second tier of Swedish football.
There are three motorways in Hampshire, one of which is a spur of another. The M3 is both the southern part of the Hampshire section of that motorway (although it begins just across the border in Surrey and has junctions with that county at those points) and a main route south from London to Southampton and Bournemouth, Bristol, South Wales and the West Country. Almost all traffic using it either joins at the M25 junction 11 or leaves at Junction 12.
It is part of the unsigned E-road network (E05). M1 motorway was opened in stages from the 1950s to 1970s. It runs south-eastwards across the whole county, coming from the York district in the north via Bradford and Halifax as far as Wakefield, where it joins the M62 motorway. It is mostly dualled, but some places have only one carriageway. The M1 passes through the county on the eastern side of the Cotswolds, connecting Leicester with London (junction 20) and the major cities of Birmingham, Leeds and Sheffield.